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paper代写,Translated from the ancient Buddhist

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Abstract: People have always thought that in our country too much emphasis on the traditional translation of "free translation", that is too much emphasis on the subjectivity of the translator, translator in the translation process that a "naturalized" instead of "alienation" approach and plays a leading role. However, the success of the ancient Buddhist scriptures translated due in large part to build up in Translation, including the original author, translator, reader, publisher, etc., supervisors, and relationships between the main body. In fact, in the process of translation can be more concerned if this intersubjectivity, the quality of translation and the effect will be better. 

Keywords: Buddhism; translation; intersubjectivity; naturalization; alienation 

Abstract: It has been believed that more emphasis had been laid on the liberal translation in the history of the Chinese translation, with too much emphasis on the subject of translator. That is, it is always the translator's dominance in the Chinese traditional translation by usingdomesticating method rather than foreignization. However, we believe that the success of the ancient Buddhism translation owes much to the harmonious inter-subjectivity such as the original writer, translator interpreter, reader, supervisor, and publisher involved in translation. Actually, if more attention were paid to the realization of such inter-subjectivity in translating, we would have got more successful translation in quality and effect. 
Key words: Buddhism; translation; inter-subjectivity; domestication; foreignization 

I. Introduction 
Whether in philosophy, or in the literature, the discussion on the subject of the topic has become obsolete. But this concept in translation studies will still cause a lot of controversy.Especially in recent years, scholars have translated the subject of discussion is lively. Through discussion and contention, some scholars believe that "the translator is the only translation of the main" [1] Some scholars believe that the main translation should include writers, translators and readers [2], as well as scholars believe that, in addition to translators, thereaders and to accept the environment is also the main creative treason [3]. However, no matter how much debate the differences, on the translator's main role seems to have given full recognition, while the traditional translation of the overblown "free translation", "domestication" are given the same criticism. This paper from the translation of the ancient Buddhist historical facts, explore the subject translation of Buddhist scriptures in the understanding of the role of translation, and then shows the dominant position of the translator as well as with other subjects of the relationship between the ancient scriptures in our activities has been established and a measure of scriptures of the level of the key factors. 

Second, the translation of Buddhist scriptures in ancient China Overview 
Translation of Buddhist scriptures in ancient China mainly refers to the period of Eastern Han Emperor Heng (AD 148 years) to the early Song Dynasty (AD 988) Translation of Buddhist activities. Rise to a peak and then decline from the last 800 years. Generally believed that the 2nd century AD, came to Iran, China, Buddhist monks Anshi Gao is the founder of Translation, 34 Transwhiz their lives, more than 40 volumes. Since then, in the famous Buddhist masters have Kumarajiva translation, the true meaning of Xuanzang and not waited in vain. This division has four of the five is the translation of foreign monk, Xuan Zang is the only Han Chinese. Kumarajiva (AD 343) of native India, came to China during the Eastern Jin Dynasty, lived 17 years in Gansu, after 58 years of age to Chang'an in the translation of Buddhist scriptures, and his scriptures of 35, more than 300 volumes, "he was the first time classical Indian Buddhism introduced into China and Turkey, according to the original directly on the revival of Chinese Buddhism during the Six Dynasties and the Sui and Tang dynasties the formation of the Buddhist Zhuzong, have played an important role "[4] 16. The essence of India in AD 546 monks were invited to promote Buddhism in China, in China stay for 23 years, scriptures were 38, 118 volumes. Emperor Taizong of Tang Dynasty monk Xuanzang Zhenguan in three years (AD 629) of pro-go to India to study Buddhism, after 17 years returned to Chang'an, then the cause of nearly 20 years of dedicated scriptures were Transwhiz 75, 1335 Vol. Staff and students are not empty in India (AD 705), the young uncle came to China with a lifetime Transwhiz 110, a total of 143 volumes. History of Chinese Buddhism in Translation, have chosen as a representative of these five masters, not only because of their scriptures is a high level, but also because they represent the scriptures of several major Buddhist sects. 
The degree of influence from the translation of Buddhist scriptures read, the scriptures activities Kumarajiva and Xuan Zang is considered the greatest impact, not only is the number of their respective scriptures leading position at the time, and their scriptures are also called first-class quality Here that the quality standards than the "song from the dialect, naughty fun in this" or "arbitrary meaning, the words songjang. Poet with the writing, to grant to play" or "good approval Italy, Miao was attentive" (Tang Buddhism, Taoism declared "Continued Biographies of Eminent Monks"). 
From the Translation of view, the five masters used different translation methods. An Shigao and after Kumarajiva are learning Chinese in China, and soon proficient in Chinese. But in the process of translation of Buddhist scriptures, An Shigao literal approach adopted, and strive to save the true colors of the classic; Kumarajiva Tech's translation is used (ie, free translation), by the righteousness of Fozhi to promote and elucidate, "so easy to accept Turkey chanting learners understand", without losing the "natural interest in the language of the Western Regions." Essence is invited to China to pass on, at first did not know Chinese, translation when equipped with a special "pass phrase", and then by the "pen by" documenting written.After 60 years of age, before the true meaning of "becoming benevolent Chinese words, do not need interpretation" of the. Therefore, his scriptures to use more literal way, the text will inevitably be "incomprehensible" in places, but mainly explained by the meaning of his main purpose, which asked how many have got some of his own views. From this sense, his scriptures and with a paraphrase of the mark. Famous monk in Tang Dynasty monk Xuanzang 13 years old, 21 years old by the situation right ring, 29-year-old went to India to study Sanskrit classic, 46-year-old learn from home. He not only proficient in Sanskrit, by the deeper meaning was the essence of Buddhism is a "learn to do Brahmana, the solution to make the Buddha intended." Therefore, in the translation of Buddhist scriptures when "the language Chengzhang", "view the text as yourself, turn equipment still ring" (Tang, Buddhism, Taoism declared "Continued Biographies of Eminent Monks"). Although the Indians did not empty the master, but his childhood came to China, learn Chinese culture, Chinese language proficiency Vatican, translation easy to understand, "the turn by the theory, are microscopic holes." Such as "Inwang protect the country Prajna Paramita Sutra", the essence of the master hand is translated as "Inwang Wisdom by" not empty the master to be translated into "Inwang by" a paraphrase of the model. Translation of research to see from that period, the rise of translation of Buddhist scriptures for the translation of research. Influential in the first dimension only when the number of difficult, Zhu will still go far as the representative of the "quality" faction, supported Chen in the "Dhammapada sequence," The idea will also be traced back to Confucius and Lao Zi, where: "the book different words, Words "," no kind words letter words are not beautiful. "Thus, concluded:" Chuan Wu Yi today, is desirable path up. "[4] 6, however, the quality is still blind, it is inevitable stylistic barrier , incomprehensible words, adverse widely read, and there is "good Qin Wen," and that even the Eastern monks Road safety has to admit that there are five cases could not be "Trail up" (ie "five lost this"). Later, after a change of valuing Kumarajiva quality translation, the original system of informal, regular variation, both fit naturally lively and wonderful meaning. Praised his humanity after a Buddhist monk Xuan Jie, the translation of the classic "good approval Italy, Miao was attentive, will be made up to party, strength of character Reuben, Wang Yan in the world, no loss, narrated." [5] Since then, the "culture", "quality" of the war has been a Buddhist translation studies of the two main schools. During this period, the dispute has not yet subsided text quality, the more it tends to fight more clear and consistent, that is a compromise, because "the text off the injured Yan, rather then the risk of wild nature" [5]. This debate should be attributed to committed Translating the results of the main practical and theoretical study of ancient monks, such as the Eastern Jin Dynasty monk Hui Yuan, Buddhist monks Later Qin Rui, Liang Yu monk monk, monks Sui Yan Zong of the Tang Dynasty monk Xuanzang, Tao Xuan and Song Ning, like monks. They are not only persistent practice, but also from the perspective of dialectical quality and yet the text still blindly given serious criticism, particularly the Tang Dynasty monk Xuanzang Master Translating practice tone quality of the two monks translated the text and the concept is still made the offer as an example. Liang praised descendants, said: "If those Xuan Zang, the paraphrase translation, successful conciliation, the polar orbit Stora also" [6] 29. To do this, of course, not just the "five no turning," can be achieved, but the main thing is, "Xuan Zang in the scriptures in the successful use of the supplementary method, omit the method, displacement method, sub-legal, translated under the guise of law, pronounsreduction method "[4] 31 and so on translation skills, to solve such as" no hidden as ignorant, "" quiet Xu Mo look "like the problem. 




在中国古代的佛经翻译主要是指东汉恒帝(公元148年)时期的佛教活动早在宋代(公元988年)翻译。达到高峰,然后下降,从过去800年。一般认为,公元2世纪,来到伊朗,中国,佛教僧侣王安石高的创始人,34译经翻译他们的生活,40余册。从那时起,在著名的佛教大师鸠摩罗什翻译,而不是真正意义上的玄奘空等。这种划分有四五个是翻译外国和尚玄奘是中国唯一的汉。鸠摩罗什(公元343年),印度本土,来到中国东晋期间,住甘肃17年后,58岁的长安翻译佛经,他的经文35,300余册,“他是第一次古典印度佛教引入中国,土耳其,根据原来直接在六朝时期和隋唐佛教朱总形成了中国佛教的复兴,都发挥了重要的作用” [4] 16。在公元546名僧人被邀请印度的精髓,以促进佛教在中国,在中国停留了23年,经文分别为38,118册。唐代高僧玄奘法师贞观三年(公元629年)唐太宗亲去印度学习佛法,17年后回到长安,译经事业近20年的专用经文1335卷75, 。教职员和学生是不是空的印度(公元705年),年轻的叔叔来到中国,用一生译经110,共143卷。在翻译中的中国佛教的历史,选择了这五大高手的代表,不仅是因为他们的圣经是一个高层次,而且还因为他们代表了经典的几大佛教宗派。
从翻译来看,五大高手用不同的翻译方法。安世高和鸠摩罗什后学习中国在中国,在中国很快精通。但在佛教经文,一个诗稿文字的方式通过的,翻译的过程和努力,以拯救真正的经典的颜色;科技鸠摩罗什翻译的使用(即,免费翻译),佛智义促进和阐明,“那么容易接受土耳其呗学习者理解“,不失”自然兴趣西域的语言。“邀请中国的本质是传递,起初不知道中国的,翻译时配备了一个特殊的“通行证”,然后由“笔”记录写入。 60岁后,才真正意义上的“成为仁者中国话,不要需要解释”的。因此,他的经文来使用更多的文字,文字难免会“难以理解”的地方,但主要是他的主要目的,问有多少得到了一些自己的看法的意思解释。从这个意义上说,他的经文和与意译的标志。唐代高僧玄奘13岁,21岁的情况右环的著名高僧,29岁去印度学习梵文经典,46岁从家里学习。他不仅精通梵文,更深层次的含义是佛教的本质是一个“学习做婆罗门,使溶液佛意。”因此,在翻译佛经时,“语言成章”,“查看自己的文本,打开设备仍然环”(唐,佛教,道教宣“续高僧传”)。虽然印度人没空大师,但他的童年来到中国,学习中国文化,中国的语言能力梵蒂冈,容易理解的翻译,“转理论,是微观孔”。如“仁王护国般若波罗蜜”,译为“仁王般若大师之手的精髓是”不为空的主,被翻译成“仁王”意译的模型。研究,看看那个时期的翻译,翻译佛经翻译研究的兴起。有影响力的数量,难度,只有当朱仍然会走得很远为代表的“质量”派,支持陈中的“法句经序列的第一个维度,”我们的想法也可以追溯到孔子和老子:“书不同的字,词”,“毫不客气的话字母的单词是不漂亮。”因此,得出结论:“川吴仪今天,是可取的路径。”[4],但是,质量仍然是盲目的,这是不可避免的文体障碍,难以理解的话,不良广泛阅读,并有“好秦文,”东方僧侣甚至道路安全也不得不承认,有五种情况不能“小道”(即“五失去这种“)。后来,经过评估鸠摩罗什质量翻译非正式的,定期的变化,原来的系统的改变,既适合自然生动和精彩的意义。后,一个和尚轩杰,翻译经典的“好批准意大利称赞他的人性,苗族是羞涩,将进行党的风骨,王艳鲁本在世界上,没有损失,叙述”。 [5]从那时起,“文化”,“品质”之战一直是两大流派的佛教翻译研究。在此期间,争议尚未平息文本质量,更倾向于争取更明确和一贯的,那就是一种妥协,因为“受伤的颜文字关,而野性的风险”[5]。这次辩论应归功于致力于翻译历代高僧,如东晋高僧慧远主要实践和理论研究成果,后来秦锐,梁瑜和尚和尚,和尚穗衍宗唐代佛教僧侣玄奘,陶轩和宋宁,像和尚。他们是不是只有执着的做法,但也从质量的辩证的角度来看,但文字仍然盲目地给予严肃的批评,特别是唐代高僧玄奘法师翻译实践音质两位高僧翻译的文字和概念仍然提供一个例子。梁启超称赞的后裔,说:“如果那些玄奘意译翻译,调解成功,极地轨道斯道也”[6] 29。要做到这一点,当然不只是“五不拐弯,”可以实现的,但更主要的是,“玄奘在经文中成功使用的补充方法,省略法,位移法,分法律的幌子下,法律,翻译,代词还原法“[4] 31等翻译技巧,如”没有任何隐藏的无知“,”安静徐莫看看“之类的问题解决。